1. Introduce the meaning of a digraph.

2. Practice applying the Rule of c while reading multisyllable words.

Pre-Class Preparation

1. Write the Main Rule on the board.

2. Write the Rule of c on the board.

3. Write on the board: Digraph: Two letters representing one sound

4. Select the words you wish to use for this lesson from the word list farther down this page, or from this PDF of the list:

Class time elapsed: 0 minutes

In-Class Procedures

1. Review the Rule of c.

Time elapsed: 1 minute


In the next five minutes, introduce the term digraph and make sure all the students understand that words can be segmented into individual sounds, many of which are represented by digraphs. The following is just one suggestion on how to proceed.

2. Introduce the concept of a digraph by referring to the definition.

3. Write the word ship on the board and underline the sh. Ask a student to say the separated sounds in ship. Point out that sh is one sound, represented by the digraph sh.

4. Write the word chip on the board. Ask a student to say the separated sounds in chip. Underline the ch in chip and again point out that ch is one sound, represented by the digraph ch.

5. Write the word chance on the board. Point to the letter c near the end of the word and ask what sound it is, /s/ or /k/. Refer the class to the Rule of c written on the board. Ask a student to say the separated sounds in chance. (The answer is the four sounds: /ch/a/n/s/.) Underline the ce in chance and point out that it is just another digraph, this time representing the /s/ sound because the letter c is followed by an e.

Time elapsed: 6 minutes

6. In the remaining time, practice reading and chunking words taken from the list below or the PDF. All of these words chunk according to the Main Rule and have the letter c in them that must be decoded according to the Rule of c as well. If a student misapplies the Main Rule, correct as explained in Lesson 3 after the word list on that page. If a student picks the wrong sound for any letter c in a word, refer to the Rule of c by asking if there is an e, i or y after the c.

2-Syllable Words

cement (ce ment)
casket (ca sket)
clinic (cli nic)
civil (ci vil)
fabric (fa bric)
acid (a cid)
comic (co mic)
comet (co met)
citrus (ci trus)
havoc (ha voc)
second (se cond)
project (pro ject)
novice (no vice)
province (pro vince)
justice (ju stice)

3-Syllable Words

citizen (ci ti zen)
apricot (a pri cot)
decibel (de ci bel)
pacifist (pa ci fist)
pelican (pe li can)
specimen (spe ci men)
cabinet (ca bi net)
evidence (e vi dence)
criticism (cri ti cism)
precipice (pre ci pice)
crescent (cre scent)

Time elapsed: 15 minutes